USE OF BIOFUELS BENEFITS

 

1) FINANCIAL BENEFITS

a) Creation of new fields of business and commercial activity in an area with very high turnover, the fuel sector, and growth in countries and regions hitherto not associated with oil extraction

b) Direct and indirect influx of money in various sectors of the Greek economy (farmers, transport, marketing, cooperatives, associations, recycling companies, chemical companies, etc.), and create new jobs, which is more appropriate to the period of global economic crisis .

 

2) ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

a) Among the alternative fuels considered for travel and transport is biofuels. The main advantage of biofuels is that they are environmentally friendly. Their use, ie the combustion engines, is a closed cycle atoms, Figure 2, since the emitted amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the same as that absorbed by the plant growth-producing biofuels.

Moreover, because of very low or zero sulfur content, emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) is zero or very low compared to conventional fuels. Also, do not contain aromatic hydrocarbons, have low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), especially bioethanol, carbon monoxide
carbon (CO), unburned hydrocarbons and soot (particulate matter).
Have better energy balance than fossil fuels, creating better balance of greenhouse gases.

• It is biologically degradable.
• And finally, help to conserve natural resources.

 

ofeli-digrama


b) Biodiesel is a clean, non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, contains aromatic compounds and the emission of pollutants sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and smoke from the combustion of diesel engine is very low. The presence of sulfur in fuels is responsible for oxides of sulfur (SOx) in the exhaust which is one of the main pollutants in diesel. In the biodiesel sulfur content is too small, almost zero. Also, biodiesel contains enough oxygen (about 10 wt%), which makes the combustion less imperfect, so that the content in the exhaust carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons in (H / C) and carbon black (C ) is much smaller than that in conventional diesel. Furthermore, the combustion of biodiesel does not increase the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (which is responsible for the greenhouse effect), since the amount of CO2 released during the combustion then digested by the plant by photosynthesis. Table 1 summarizes the typical profile emissions from the combustion of pure biodiesel (B100) and one of the most common mixture with conventional diesel which consists of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel (B20), using as reference greenhouse from the combustion of petroleum diesel.

Table 1. Emissions B100 (100% biodiesel) and mixture B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel) in comparison to conventional diesel
The commercial name of B100 is pure biodiesel

 

Emission Β100 Β20
Carbon Monoxide -48% -12%
Unburned hydrocarbons -67% -20%
Particles -47% -12%
Oxides of nitrogen +10% +2%
Oxides of Sulfur -100% -20%
Toxic gases -60% έως -90% -12% έως -20%

 

Apart from the fact that advantageous renewable fuel biodiesel shows similar physicochemical properties to conventional diesel, and in some cases has better features than this, as higher flash point so that it is safer to use a smaller amount of sulfur but higher lubricity because oxygen-containing and higher cetane number. Reducing the sulfur content levied on fossil fuels has a negative effect on engine lubrication because the lubricants reduced sulfur compounds. Thus, refineries use very expensive and also non-biodegradable additives to restore the lubricity of the fuel. The addition, however, the biodiesel to petroleum diesel, even in concentrations less than 1 wt%, restores the lubricity of the fuel, so the use of biodiesel extended life of diesel and refineries saving a lot of money. The higher cetane number showing biodiesel over conventional diesel for the fact that during the combustion of biodiesel releases less energy than the energy released by the conventional diesel. Thus the efficiency of a diesel engine fueled by pure biodiesel ranges at least the levels of conventional diesel. Also, biodiesel is suitable for existing diesel engines, which need not be almost any conversion even using pure biodiesel. Table 2 shows a comparison between the prices should have different properties of conventional diesel and biodiesel in accordance with international standards


It is worth mentioning a few quantifiable recent studies on the use of biofuels:
• A recent study at the University of Minneapolis in the U.S., concluded that biodiesel is a better choice than bioethanol: bioethanol from corn yields 25% more energy than that required to produce, while biodiesel from soybean yields 93% energy. Compared to fossil fuels, bioethanol produces 12% less greenhouse gas emissions, while biodiesel is 41% less.

• A similar study in IFEN, the French Environment Institute showed that using biodiesel generates 75% fewer greenhouse gases, while bioethanol 60% less. These sizes are larger than those in most studies were carried out. However, Greenpeace believes that this study did not have appreciated fully the facts of growing the feedstock. Similar differences were observed in other similar studies.

This is because, usually, when considering the environmental benefits of using biofuels compared the type and concentration of pollutants emitted from vehicle exhausts. Such an examination, however, it refers more:

• small-scale use,
• present or a short time scale in the future, and
• small geographic area.

c) A proportion of biodiesel from animal fats and cooking oils, which is polluting the environment and recycled effectively converted into biodiesel (how many know that one quart of oil sufficient to infect 14 million liters of water;). should not forget that the biodiesel industry is unique in Greece that can be used in large quantities.

d) Reduction of emissions from the transport sector and immense contribution to the achievement of national targets (liabilities) of the Kyoto Protocol and the expected restrictions on emissions with exhaust from car engines.


3) AGRO - ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS

a) Oilseeds energy plants have dual status. They produce 35% of oil used for biodiesel and 65% high quality forage pie unmutated. ¨ So 65% of the seeds are used in our food chain.

b) Economy water from 50% to 70% compared to traditional farming, which means solution of the problem areas which are exhausted aquifers.

c) Zero use of insecticides, better quality of life for farmers (have seen 30% more deaths farmers from cancer than the general population), the ideal environment for the development of bees and other beneficial insects.

d) From zero to minimal use of herbicides, which means with all these low cost per hectare.

Example that demonstrates all of the above is that the root tissue of the leaves after the rape culture so divine, that next year in potato cultivation restricted pesticides by 50% and fertilizers by 30%.

e) the possibility of rotation of 10% to 25% cereals exist in Greece, exceeded the area need to produce all the required amount of biodiesel from crops exclusively Greek land (note that it occurred after rapeseed cultivation increased production of cereals 15% to 40% next year), so as not to affect the existing balance in Greece. So the scenario collapses occurred in the past, that are responsible for energy crops to increase the prices of agricultural products and the lack of grain.


4) GEOPOLITICAL BENEFITS
a) creating greater energy autonomy in each country following promotion program of biodiesel, such as the countries of the European Union of raw materials especially for Greece from the land, thus ensuring security of fuel supplies and reduce the dependence of E . E. and members of the oil-producing countries.

b) improve the balance of imports and exports of our country since the introduction of avoiding such a quantity of oil around 10% is a huge advantage for the country.

c) Long-term and secure future energy crop growers, knowing that after 2010 the rate of mixing of biodiesel with mineral diesel in Europe will double.

d) We are talking about agriculture symvolaiaki one safeguard that will not allow to create cartels (end uncertainty for farmers to product pricing - the time of payment, etc.) constant feed rate and better programming for everyone.

 
5) SOCIAL BENEFITS

Possibility of developing new agricultural policy and rural youth activities at national and global level, creating jobs and building rural areas with more efficient manner.


CONCLUSIONS

All these have been known for a long time but there are two important reasons that lead people to turn to biofuels:

a) The realization of the seriousness of environmental problems and the looming climate change and

b) The large increase in oil prices make alternatives economically viable and cost competitive in new fuels derived from oil.

 

 

 

ENERGY PLANTSRapeseed
Sunflower
Sweet sorghum
Barley - Wheat
Sugar beet
Maize
Eucalyptus
Robinia
Cane
Miscanthus
Cardoon
Switchgrass

 

 

 

 

BIODIESEL

  • Biodiesel is defined as the esters of higher fatty acids having similar physical properties to the diesel fuel and can be used as substitute.

περισσότερα...